Early Reflections on Crop Circles
These pages contain my early work on crop circle geometry and crop circle reconstructions.
My later work can be found on my website Crop Circles and More

  Geometry | Reconstructions | Photos | Crop Circles and More

Crop Circle Geometry - construction points

Geometrical constructions can be made with the aid of a straight edge and a pair of compasses. The compasses is obviously being used for making circles. In order to do this you must put the needle of the compasses in the paper. The places where you put the needle in the paper you could call ‘construction points’.
While reconstructing the different crop circles I noticed that these construction points were always on special places. They were all on spots where the crop was downed in the actual crop formation or in a tramline. At first this gave me some shock because you can replace the needle of the compasses by a person holding a rope. My first thought was: it were humans after all! Then I quickly realized that my own findings make it impossible that it were humans. Think of the different elements that are necessary to construct a formation but which can not be found back in the final design. This is impossible for humans to perform in a field. But nevertheless, I could not find a construction point that was placed in ‘standing crop’.

In the diagrams are some examples shown of reconstructed crop formations. The used construction points are marked as little circles. See also the main-section Crop Circle Reconstructions.


Barbury Castle, 1992

The 1992 Barbury Castle formation is another example. Here we see a different situation. One of the used construction points lies far away from the actual formation. But again it is NOT in standing crop. The mentioned construction point lies exactly on a spot where a tramline was running!

What does this all mean? By just looking at the used construction points, one can easily come to the conclusion that all the studied formations were made by humans. But by looking at the overall reconstructions one must admit that humans cannot have made these formations in the way I reconstructed them on paper!
Etchilhampton, 1997

I will now show you the reconstruction of a formation where again no construction points could be found in 'standing crop'. Though with this formation it goes a little further. The formation contained an element that was strictly necessary just to avoid the situation of having construction points in standing crop! I will not show all the construction steps but just the crucial ones. 
The diagrams show the steps where first the size of a necessary circle is determined which consequently is putted into place. See also Etchilhampton - England 1997 in the main-section Crop Circle Reconstructions for all the steps.

The circle constructed in the diagrams above is used to determine the position of six new circles.

The diagram on the right shows the finished reconstruction with the used construction points indicated as small circles.
Notice that six of those construction points were situated on the ring round the formation. If this ring had not been there, those six points would have been in standing crop. Furthermore if the ring had been bigger or smaller, again the six points would have been in standing crop! Remarkably enough we see that firstly the ring is there and secondly the ring has exactly the 'correct' size. The ring had to be there! The construction point in the center of the formation was situated just on the edge of a tramline.

With regard to construction points we can come to the following conclusions:
  • The necessary construction points could in the studied formations never been found in standing crop;
  • Some formations have elements that are strictly necessary to avoid construction points in standing crop.

Let me once more point out that though the construction points indicate that humans could have made the studied formations, the overall constructions are making this impossible! For the construction necessary elements cannot be found back in the final design. You cannot make downed crop stand again.